By: Edward Wilkinson

Greenberg clearly states that California is leading the way in becoming sustainable when comparing it against the other 49 states. By living sustainable lifestyles, communities are created with a goal of evolving in a way that is as sustainable as possible, Greenberg says, co-evolving. This to me makes perfect sense; we need to evolve as a world, not just as humans. Without the ability to live symbiotically with the natural world, we are undoubtedly doomed, if not already. California is doing this through many different aspects including technology, architecture, politics (laws / regulations) or government, lifestyles, etc. By implementing into all parts of life California is able to take a huge step forward in the right direction, but as Solnit would say it must be continuous.

Market-oriented sustainability is when businesses use sustainability to gain a competitive edge from consumers in the western or modern world looking out for sustainable companies that will help build a better future. Greenberg says, “urban and corporate managers realize they will lose their competitive edge if they don’t incorporate sustainability in their brand”. Market oriented sustainability is a key factor in our world becoming more sustainable. I think this because without it humans would find it hard to come up with their own ways to implement a more sustainable life style. With more and more business producing sustainable products, services etc, all the humans have to do now is support these companies and along with them implement sustainable lifestyle and eradicate our over consumption / population problem. Becoming sustainable has long been lacking the ability to pull thru, but now with money pushing it, it should continue to improve and together make a better place for the next generation.

Greenberg also talks about eco/justice–oriented and vernacular all of which play important parts such as the environment. However without market-oriented sustainability I believe all of these would not be as successful, as they don’t have the same money (in other words power) behind them.

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By: Armig Boghigian

California has played a big role in promoting sustainability globally. California may be seen as more of an ideal than a place to some because it is filled with possibilities. Through eco-oriented organizations and social movements in Northern California, a special label has been granted for that portion of the state. Greenberg says to unify the state we must take a step back and ask ourselves some basic yet vital questions. By answering questions such as "what is to be sustained and what is not? And who gets to choose and who does not," she comes to the conclusion that sustainability is inherently political in essence. She suggests that integration of forces may help the state move towards a unifying goal.

Corporations view sustainability as a market strategy that creates a competitive advantage. Market-oriented sustainability is a form of sustainability that is seen as a means for capital growth, and according to Greenberg, it has become a dominant form in California. A principle she states is "the role of the state is key" (64). She believes that force from the state and social movements will help communities and so, together we can create a sustainable society aimed towards all focuses.

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By: Roaldin Fernandez

             Sustainability through commercialism calls out for California's landscapes that are iconic such as its coasts and farms.  It has always been this way due to America's history of manifest destiny.  The cities on the east were more developed and transformed its surroundings to a very urban environment simply because there is a much more deeper history of human inhabitants.   Where the west was seen as natural land due to its smaller density of urban footprint and uninhabited lands.  This created an image of a balanced sustainable framework between humans and nature in the west and as a result forged a branding out of it. 

Capitalism has converted sustainability from an ideal to a branding name for economical gain.  It has than transformed into "green capitalism" by politics and businesses such as food justice becoming national due to to low income cities such as Oakland.  They created a movement of alternative ways for food equity, access and diversity or distribution. It is now an internal growth and if companies don't embrace it they will lose their competitive edge.  "The sustainable future we seek to build depends entirely upon whose sustainability we are talking about"(p 57).  There are many sustainable models in competition which each other that represent the ideals of people.  These ideas contradict other ideas from other communities making it hard to use a singular universal framework.  We have to find a goal while evaluating what is worth sustaining and what isn't, but who gets to choose and who doesn't?  This creates a political problem for sustainability.  Greenberg's goal is to destabilize the singular understanding of the word "sustainability" and collectively express the many layers of sustainability.  Ecotopian and social justice have to be merged for it will help pick what is relevant in an urban society filled with multiple entities that most are even obsolete.  This will narrow down what is needed to become a more sustainable society.

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By: Maro Mkrtchyan

Greenberg uses California as a prime example of a sustainability ectopia. The legacies are examples given from the history of California and its ecofriendly cities in San Francisco. In addition she credits citizens of California as being one of the first to strive for utopian idealistic cities where nature, humans, and technology can coexists in harmony. Adding to the legacy are names mentioned if professors and even governors are all participating in the achievement of this goal throughout history.

She defines "market driven sustainability" as a new evolving branch of sustainability that flows over into the consumer economy of capitalistic California and its affect on competing with the original definition of ecological sustainability. She is basically referring to the branding used by corporations with the word "sustainability" or it's implications. Her research makes me thinks that we have too many contradictions or powers at play when talking about sustainability and it needs to be better defined or understood in order for the goal of sustainability is achieved. We need to figure out what we really want to sustain.

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